Nickel, palladium, indium, and germanium, not to mention lithium, and the coveted rare earths. They’re just a few on a long list of critical raw materials that are not only key for Europe’s green and digital transitions, but increasingly centre stage in policy discussions as consumption grows dramatically and threats to supply chains persist.

I had the pleasure of hosting one such discussion at the Italian Embassy in Berlin. As Europe’s two strongest countries in terms of industrial production – Germany and Italy share an interest in ensuring any European resilience strategy ticks all the necessary boxes – our large panel included Franziska Brantner, Parliamentary State Secretary at Germany’s Ministry for the Economy and Climate Protection, the Head of Germany’s pioneering Mineral Resources Agency (DERA), Peter Buchholz, and Massimo Gasparon, Director-General of ERMA, as well as representatives from both countries’ political and industrial sectors.

Photos: © Dario Laganà